Drumbeat: October 13, 2009
Posted by Leanan on October 13, 2009 - 9:50am
A Path to Downward Mobility: Today's youngest Americans are likely to be worse off than their parents.
Every generation of Americans should live better than its predecessor. That's Americans' core definition of economic "progress."
But for today's young, it may be a mirage. Higher health spending, increasing energy prices and stretched governments at all levels may squeeze future disposable incomes—what people have to spend—and public services. Are we condemning our children to downward mobility?
SRINAGAR, India – Indian Kashmir's glaciers are melting fast because of rising temperatures, threatening the water supply of millions of people in the Himalayan region, a new study by Indian scientists says.
The study by Kashmir University's geology and geophysics department blamed the effect on climate change, and said it endangered the livelihoods of two-thirds of the region's nearly 10 million people engaged in agriculture, horticulture, livestock rearing and forestry.
PARIS — More than 100,000 people in northern Iraq have abandoned their homes since 2005 because of water stress, after drought and over-extraction of groundwater caused the collapse of an ancient water system, UNESCO said on Tuesday.
"Drought and excessive well pumping have drawn down aquifer levels in the region, causing a dramatic decline of water flow in ancient underground aqueducts" known as karez, the UN's Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) said.
RIO DE JANEIRO, Brazil (AFP) – President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva said Tuesday he will offer to reduce the pace of deforestation in Brazil's Amazon rain forest by 80 percent by 2020 when he attends December's global climate talks in Copenhagen.
I found the concept to be so brilliant: taking existing hospitals and clinics in Gambia and providing them with solar panels to generate the electricity they lack.
The Gambia is a country that has access to medical equipment but not enough power to run it efficiently. Imagine a hospital in which a cesarean section is performed by candlelight, with power from a generator for just two hours a day.
My hope is that Power Up Gambia can one day outfit every clinic and hospital in The Gambia with solar panels, then take that example to the rest of Africa and, hopefully, even to the United States where, for example, Native American reservations are facing a similar crisis.
(Bloomberg) -- Saudi Arabia plans to test enhanced oil recovery, a method of increasing fossil-fuel production by injecting gas in the ground, at its Ghawar Field in the country’s east.
The project, planned for 2013, involves injecting about 40 million cubic feet of carbon dioxide daily into an area flooded by water in the Arab-D reservoir in the Ghawar field, Prince Abdulaziz Bin Salman Al-Saud, the country’s assistant minister for petroleum affairs, said today at a carbon capture and storage conference in London.
The oil recovery project is aimed at helping spread a technology that the International Energy Agency today said is a necessary tool to cut by half global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuels by 2050. It will be the first of its kind in Saudi Arabia, a member of the Saudi delegation said.
“It’s worth mentioning that Saudi Arabia does not need to produce oil through enhanced oil recovery at production scale for decades to come,” Bin Salman Al-Saud said. “This is a key focus area in our carbon management technology road map,” a set of Saudi policies to help reduce greenhouse-gas emissions blamed for global warming.
Kim Gallagher has a plan for America's "blue highways," the thousands of miles of dusty, old, single-lane heritage routes that wend desolately through the countryside: turn them green. Superseded by high-speed interstates, many of these narrow byways have been long forgotten, along with the faded small towns they connect, says Gallagher, a project manager for the Southwest Michigan Planning Commission. But off-the-beaten-path America could be revived, she says, by transforming little-used roadways into "green highways" that cater specifically to electric-vehicle drivers and other slow-moving, eco-minded tourists traveling by bicycle or on foot.
A "few thousand" employees at Royal Dutch Shell have been asked to submit applications for their own jobs, as BP predicts stable oil prices over the next few years.
MEXICO CITY (Reuters) - Mexico's shutdown of an inefficient federally run power utility is part of a broader policy to make state companies more efficient, the energy minister said on Tuesday.
NEW DELHI (Reuters) - Coal shortages restricted growth in India's overall power generation to an annual 7.5 percent in September, power regulator Central Electricity Authority said on Tuesday.
Generation would have grown 9.8 percent had enough coal been available at plants of NTPC Ltd, it said in a statement.
In his widely reported London speech earlier this month, Gen. Stanley McChrystal, the U.S. commander in Afghanistan, described how people constantly offer him ideas for fixing that country's problems. One of the more unusual recommendations, he suggested, came from a paper that advocated using a "plan called 'Chaosistan.' " McChrystal said it advised letting Afghanistan become a "Somalia-like haven of chaos that we simply manage from outside," but there was no further explanation of its origins.
New York is not alone in its push to get citizens out of their cars and onto the streets. As the environmental and economic benefits of car-free living become impossible to ignore, urban leaders across the country are working to create ongoing motivation for us to ditch our gas-guzzling ways.
On the day we visit Fisk he's about to launch the first prototype test of his latest invention -- an environmentally friendly cement and building structure. Fisk hopes these new ideas will revolutionize how homes and office buildings are built and how communities are planned and organized.
The cement will be called "megacrete." Fisk says it will be made of magnesium oxide and phosphate from brine, which is a by-product of petroleum and water treatment facilities.
(CNN) -- NASA plans to launch next week the first of 17 planned flights to study changes in Antarctic ice and collect data that may help scientists better predict the consequences of those changes, officials said Thursday.
SAN FRANCISCO (Fortune) -- If you believe that the battery in your car will soon be bigger than the engine -- or replace it entirely -- you should keep an eye on A123 Systems.
The Watertown, Mass.-based company, which develops advanced lithium ion batteries for things like power tools and cars, went public toward the end of September after pulling an earlier IPO bid to wait for a better investing climate.
The Tiber well is a striking example of how oil and gas companies – particularly the large western groups – are being driven to ever more difficult and inaccessible regions in their search for resources.
Oil men often bristle at the suggestion that the world is running out of “easy oil”: the oil business was never easy, they say. But there is no denying that most of the world’s most physically accessible oil and gas is politically difficult for western companies to exploit because it is held by countries such as Russia and the members of Opec, which are generally unwelcoming to foreign investors.
In many areas where western companies can operate, such as the relatively shallow waters of the North Sea or parts of the Gulf of Mexico closer to the shore, the best of the oil has now gone, and output is in decline.
To sustain their production, western companies have to stay at the technological frontier. Year by year, they are pushing to exploit resources that are deeper, heavier, hotter, or under higher pressure, in rocks that are less yielding, and in locations that are harsher and more remote, than ever before.
The experiences of those years, with frequent travel and contact with a wide variety of audiences, lead me now to reflect on what has worked in getting the Peak Oil warning across, and what hasn’t. Certainly I think all of us would agree that high oil prices create a window of opportunity, a teachable moment, while low prices and news of big new oil discoveries tend to deflate interest in our message. That being the case, it’s useful, as a presenter, to have constantly updated information, to keep presentations topical, and to anticipate likely questions and objections based on recent news stories.
Of course, each presenter has a unique profile of strengths and weaknesses, and it’s important to know your strengths—whether they be facility with humor, experience in the industry, or skill at data analysis—and make the most of them. Further advice that I might give about how to be a successful Peak Oil communicator is likely to descend even further to the level of mere platitude, but platitudes occasionally have their place.
Here’s one: Make definite assertions. If you’re not quotable or memorable, you will not be quoted or remembered. But back your assertions up with evidence.
Ever heard the term "peak oil"? If so, you likely have some feelings about what it means, and if you have not heard of it, I plan on presenting some things you might find interesting about it.
First off, the term peak oil refers to the point in time when the maximum rate of global petroleum extraction is reached, after which the rate of production enters terminal decline. There is a lot of debate about what will happen after the peak is achieved (everybody seems to agree oil is a finite resource), and how close we are to that point and the challenges it may present now is hotly debated.
The continent is doing a booming business selling diamonds, oil and coffee to China, but is it benefiting Africans?
We, as a species, are now bumping up against -- slamming into, really -- some very immutable biophysical limits on a global scale. These limits and the mounting consequences for their continued violation have been predicted and well documented by our best scientists for many decades -- complete with dire warnings for the consequences of failing to change our course.
We have not heeded these warnings and we are now suffering the predicted consequences. It is our own fault.
We have reached limits in two very real and dangerous senses. Firstly, our voracious material wants have outstripped the Earth’s physical limits -- hard limits on how much and how rapidly the Earth can provide us with material and energy resources to run our industrial lifestyles. A partial list of these increasingly scarce resources includes fossil and nuclear energy sources, freshwater for drinking and irrigation, phosphate fertilizer, and various key metal ores. Even theoretically renewable resources such as our ocean fisheries, fertile soil, and forest products are being destroyed by persistent abuse.
In short, we cannot have infinite wants on a finite planet. These were childish wishes.
MOSCOW — With an ambitious new pipeline planned to run along the bed of the Baltic Sea, the Russian natural gas giant Gazprom is driving a political wedge between Eastern and Western Europe.
While the Russian-German pipeline offers clear energy benefits to Western Europe, Central and Eastern European leaders fear it could lead to a new era of gas-leveraged Russian domination of the former Soviet bloc. With its gas wealth and eyebrow-raising network of personal ties, Russia has divided members of the European Union that have vowed to act collectively to protect their security.
Kuwait's Supreme Petroleum Council (SPC) is expected to appoint four new members soon, replacing others who have resigned, according to local media reports.
The SPC is the top energy decision-making body and is responsible for oil policy in Kuwait, the world's fourth-largest oil exporter.
"In a period of turmoil and uncertainty due to the financial crisis the Norway's oil and gas revenues have enabled actions to limit the effects on employment, trade and industry. The actions have lessened the impact of the financial crisis in Norway compared to several other countries. The high level of offshore activity is expected to be sustained also in the coming years. I will now start the work on a White Paper on petroleum policy. The White Paper will include all aspects of Norway's largest industry and pave the way for stability in the years to come," said Terje Riis-Johansen, Minister of Petroleum and Energy.
TEHRAN (Reuters) - Most of Iran's oil sales take place in currencies other than the U.S. dollar, mainly the euro, a senior official was quoted as saying on Tuesday.
Despite continuing at a sluggish pace compared with a year ago, U.S. drilling activity rebounded somewhat in the third quarter, with total well completions up 10.2 percent from the second quarter, API's third quarter 2009 drilling estimates indicate. Still, the estimated total number of oil wells, natural gas wells and dry holes completed in the quarter -- 8,856 -- was down 46 percent from 2008's third quarter and remained at levels not seen since 2003-2004, according to API's 2009 Quarterly Well Completion Report: Third Quarter.
"The trend of declining well completions is a clear indication that oil and gas companies, which are facing declining earnings and threats of increased taxes, continued to carefully monitor their expenditures," said Hazem Arafa, director of API's statistics department.
LONDON (Reuters) - Royal Dutch Shell is still in talks with the Iraqi government on fields that the country failed to award in a bidding round in June, its chief executive said on Tuesday.
Peter Voser was asked whether Baghdad had approached Shell about entering new offers for contracts it bid for in the first round of auctions in June.
BAGHDAD -- Several oil companies that initially rejected the Iraqi oil ministry's terms for the country's first round of oil-field bidding in the summer are now close to accepting the agency's terms, Oil Minister Hussein al-Shahristani said in a press conference here Tuesday.
The round, held in June, was seen as a disappointment because just one international consortium agreed to the tough terms set out by the ministry. Mr. Shahristani said the ministry is continuing discussions with some of the firms that walked away, and is closing in on deals after some companies relented on terms.
There's no natural-gas drilling in Dallas, but that's not stopping the borough from deciding where it will allow drilling.
As part of the revision of its zoning ordinance, Dallas is adding provisions that would restrict sitting gas wells to areas zoned industrial, highway or business. It would also designate distance setbacks from residences, waterways, streets and wetlands.
The proactive stance is putting Dallas at the forefront of what could become a major issue as drilling in the Marcellus Shale increases.
Oil demand in developed countries -- currently 54 percent of all oil demand -- likely reached its all-time peak in 2005, according to a new research report by IHS Cambridge Energy Research Associates. While world oil demand is now set to grow as the world economy moves from recession to recovery, the demand lost in 30 developed countries that make up the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is not likely to ever be regained, the report finds.
"The economic downturn has been masking a larger trend in the oil demand of developed countries," said IHS CERA Chairman and Pulitzer Prize-winning author of The Prize, Daniel Yergin. "The fact is that OECD oil demand has been falling since late 2005, well before the Great Recession began."
Esoteric climate-science warnings about America's oil dependence can make even the most well-meaning of eyes glaze over. Amanda Little, author of Power Trip: From Oil Wells to Solar Cells — Our Ride to the Renewable Future, took a different approach. She traveled from an offshore oil rig to the halls of the Pentagon, from NASCAR racetracks to the office of a pricey plastic surgeon in order to tell a more human side of the energy story. TIME talked to Little about how fossil fuels saturate our lives and why taking personal responsibility is the key to pulling out of this mess.
Arab oil producers netted more than $70 million (Dh256m) per hour in crude export revenues in 2008, official figures showed.
However, income could dive below half this amount in 2009 because of the sharp fall in oil prices.
The Mexican government on Thursday ordered Petroleos Mexicanos to halt its exploration in the Chicontepec oil field. Juan Carlos Zepeda, president of the National Hydrocarbons Commission, wants Pemex to come up with a proper development plan before going further. This commission sets technical standards for the country's crude oil and natural gas fields. Pemex claims that the project is too important to be abandoned because of a large investment already made. 8 projects would be scrapped.
Effective this month, the state conservation office will enforce a new requirement for reporting water sources utilized by oil and gas companies for hydraulic fracturing operations.
The policy is in response to the intense development of the Haynesville Shale natural gas formation in northwest Louisiana. The reporting requirement is part of the Office of Conservation's efforts to ensure the balance between preserving the state's natural resources while allowing responsible development, Commissioner James Welsh said.
Britain's energy policy has been a mess for almost as long as anyone can remember. On the evidence of two reports published over the last week, one from Ofgem, the energy regulator, and the other from the Committee on Climate Change, it is not about to get much better.
What MacKay is trying to get away from is the kind of ethical arguments about energy issues that so muddy the waters of the environment debate. Take the mobile phone charger. Plugged in it uses about half a watt or 0.01 kWh per day. A television on stand-by uses 10 watts. It thus might have been better for the BBC to concentrate on TVs rather than phone chargers, but then it is a TV corporation!
Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger signed several bills Sunday that will tweak the way California's electricity market works, encouraging solar power and phasing out some rules created during the state's electricity crisis.
Will oil demand soon outgrow supply?: Peak oil believers think so, but oil, gas companies say that theory is bogus
A “peak oil” conference wrapping up today in Denver is sounding the alarm that oil demand will soon outgrow supply, posing a potential economic threat to the country’s economic well being.
However, most oil and gas companies say the peak oil theory is bogus and that there are plenty of the natural resource to go around.
Mayor John Hickenlooper is among the peak oil believers. The former geologist told conference attendees yesterday that it’s not a question of if the world will reach peak oil — meaning the time of maximum oil production — but when it will happen.
“We cannot afford to ignore the issue,” he said in a statement. “By anticipating the expected rapid changes in both supply and demand, we can begin to frame the issue not only as a challenge but also as an economic opportunity.”
But The Colorado Oil and Gas Association, for one, doesn’t think Hickenlooper’s school of thought has much credibility.
Assembly of peak oil experts look at shale gas: New finds are a 'game-changer' or overrated
DENVER – As a boy in Arizona, Randy Udall did a “science experiment” by putting a tarantula and a scorpion together in a Mason jar to see what would happen.
He did the same kind of experiment Monday, pitting energy executives against each other in a debate over a large new source of natural gas.
Udall is a co-founder of the Association for the Study of Peak Oil-USA and the brother of U.S. Sen. Mark Udall, D-Colo. At Monday’s national peak oil conference in Denver, he tried to make sense of major changes in the gas industry the last few years.
World demand for OPEC's oil will be stronger than expected next year, the producer group said on Tuesday, the latest sign that a more positive economic outlook will boost oil consumption.
The 12-member group is the latest forecaster to lift its oil demand estimates in the past week, following upward revisions from the International Energy Agency and the U.S. government's Energy Information Administration.
Norway expects oil prices to rise next year, but sees its total output dropping by about 1.3% on this year's figures, the government said in its 2010 draft budget, unveiled today.
The government also unveiled plans to spend more of its oil wealth next year compared to this year in a bid to help the economy regain speed after a mild recession.
LONDON (Reuters) - Royal Dutch Shell's (RDSa.L) onshore oil output in Nigeria has been heavily curtailed by violence, the company's chief executive said on Tuesday.
"We have a huge proportion of our onshore production shut in at this stage," Peter Vosel told reporters. "I think we are now at 120,000 barrels per day and we used to be close to 300,000. These are Shell's share (production)."
(Bloomberg) -- Exxon Mobil Corp.’s agreement to buy the Ghana oil assets of Kosmos Energy LLC marks an effort by the world’s most valuable company to acquire what it couldn’t find after drilling dry holes in West Africa.
Closely held Kosmos, backed by Blackstone Group LP and Warburg Pincus LLC, said yesterday it agreed to sell its Ghana properties to Irving, Texas-based Exxon Mobil. The deal, which a person familiar with the sale estimated to be worth at least $4 billion, may still be blocked by Ghana’s government.
BEIJING — China and Russia signed a framework agreement Tuesday that could see a steady flow of natural gas to energy-hungry China from its resource-rich neighbor.
It was one of numerous trade and military agreements signed during a state visit by Prime Minister Vladimir Putin as the countries overcome traditional mistrust to push ahead mutual economic interests. Even so, there has been a growing imbalance in their ties with Russia's economy lagging behind its booming neighbor.
BEIJING (Reuters) - China's cabinet has laid out detailed plans to curb overcapacity in industries such as steel, aluminium, cement and wind power, warning that the country's economic recovery could otherwise be hampered.
(Bloomberg) -- PetroChina Co. may benefit as China increases natural gas prices to encourage production and narrow the differences between domestic gas levels and imported fuel, Sanford Bernstein & Co. said.
The average “well head” price of gas excluding transport and other charges in China is $3.50 per million cubic feet, compared with imports of pipeline gas from Central Asia at $7.60 at the Chinese border and as high as $15 at oil parity for liquefied natural gas supplies, Bernstein said in a report today. Prices will increase by as much as 6 percent compounded annually over the next five years, it said.
(Bloomberg) -- Toyota Motor Corp., the world’s largest seller of hybrid vehicles, said potentially valuable emissions credits that California plans to give to utilities for supporting rechargeable cars should go to automakers instead.
Carmakers absorbed the costs to develop advanced vehicles to meet state requirements, Kevin Webber, Toyota’s U.S. general manager for regulation and certification engineering, said in comments filed last week with the California Public Utilities Commission. “Any societal benefit from the low-carbon-fuel aspect of these vehicles, especially the generation of credits, must accrue to the auto manufacturer,” he said.
Parking garages have become key to the success of transit lines, developments that emphasize transit, and suburban town centers — all popular with environmental groups and others who support reduced dependence on the automobile.
Without abundant parking near transit stations in suburban areas, people won't bother to hop on subways and trains, says Martin Stein, president of the 1,200-member National Parking Association, which is meeting near Washington, D.C., this week.
Scientists have warned that Iran and North Korea could produce a weapon capable of paralysing Western electricity grids for months or years.
BRUSSELS (AFP) – The Belgian government on Monday decided to delay the start of a progressive phasing out of nuclear power by 10 years until 2025, Energy and Climate Minister Paul Magnette said in a statement.
"The government has decided to delay by 10 years the first stage of phasing out nuclear power," the statement said.
PITTSBURGH – The next big thing in green building design might be to turn an existing idea on its side. PNC Financial Services Group Inc. recently installed a green wall the size of two tennis courts on one side of its headquarters.
Like green roofs — their perpendicular counterparts — green walls are covered in vegetation and provide the benefits of natural insulation and removal of air pollutants. PNC, which provides banking and wealth management services, estimates it will be 25 percent cooler behind the wall than the ambient summer temperatures.
HONOLULU – A 4-square-mile patch of Maui in the nation's most fossil-fuel dependent state soon will be home to a new kind of power grid, one that saves energy by turning off household appliances when electricity is expensive and makes better use of wind and solar power.
General Electric Co. recently announced it would test its "smart grid" technology in the luxury resort community of Wailea, hoping to reduce peak electricity consumption there by 15 percent by 2012.
STOCKHOLM – Two activists from Congo and New Zealand and a doctor from Australia on Tuesday won the Right Livelihood Award, also known as the "alternative Nobel," for work to protect rain forests, improve women's health and rid the world of nuclear weapons.
Congolese activist Rene Ngongo, Alyn Ware of New Zealand and Australian-born Catherine Hamlin, who has been based in Ethiopia for five decades, each will receive euro50,000 (US$74,000), the Right Livelihood Foundation said.
The honorary part of the award — without prize money — went to Canadian environmentalist David Suzuki, 73, for raising awareness of climate change.
Peak oil is an important discussion but the discussion shouldn't begin and end there. When you look at the reality of global warming, of national security, and economic volatility, then peak oil is sort of a moot discussion. You have to address it and saying 'here is a range of different opinions, but does it matter when how real and immediate and urgent the problems of climate, economic volatility and geopolitical conflict are.'
People ask me that all the time, 'are we running out of oil?' The problem isn't running out of oil, it's running out of the ability to increase our supply of oil. Then people go, "Oh! It's not that we're running out of oil. It's just going to become vastly more expensive, every year."
With the current dire warnings of our continued unreadiness for reaching peak oil, how can we begin to rebuild local food networks that will allow us to reduce our dependence on the global food market? Tamzin Pinkerton and Rob Hopkins provide the Transition take on how grassroots action could save our bacon.
A trends forecaster says the current economic "rebound" from last winter's Wall Street collapse of banks, insurance companies and automobile manufacturers is an artificial blip created by 'phantom money printed out of thin air backed by nothing."
And Gerald Celente of TrendsResearch.com, says people right now should be bracing for "the greatest recession" which will hit worldwide and will mark the "decline of empire America." Crop failures could be among the minor concerns.
"Here we are in 2012. Food riots, tax protests, farmer rebellions, student revolts, squatter diggins, homeless uprisings, tent cities, ghost malls, general strikes, bossnappings, kidnappings, industrial saboteurs, gang warfare, mob rule, terror," he writes for a quarterly publication that is available through subscription on his website.
A GWENDRAETH Valley group is leading the way in a bid to reduce carbon emissions as part of an ambitious nationwide project.
The aim of 10:10 is to unite every sector of British society behind one simple idea: that by working together we can achieve a 10% cut in the UK’s carbon emissions by 2010.
(Bloomberg) -- Businesses and governments need to invest at least $2.4 trillion between now and 2050 to capture carbon-dioxide emissions from power plants and factories and pump them underground, the International Energy Agency said.
The funding is required to develop 3,400 projects globally that trap and store the greenhouse gas and help cut emissions from fossil fuels by half from 2005 levels, according to the IEA’s “road map” for carbon capture that was published today.
High energy costs, water scarcity, an ageing population and terrorism are likely to dramatically change the tourism landscape over the next 14 years, according to a report on the future of tourism.
Tourism 2023, a "what-if?" report from sustainability think tank Forum for the Future, suggests that climate change could drastically change the destinations that people are willing to visit, and that a ballooning population in Asia will lead to a dramatic shift in tourism traffic patterns that could cause congestion problems at a number of global transport hubs.
Indian farmers had been praying for rain after the weakest monsoon season in 40 years had left their crops stricken by drought. But when the rains finally came, forceful and incessant at six times their normal levels, they left behind the worst floods southern India had seen in more than a century.
TAIPEI (AFP) – Global warming will cause the amount of heavy rain dumped on Taiwan to triple over the next 20 years, facing the government with the urgent need to beef up flood defences, a scientist warned Tuesday.
The projection is based on data showing the incidence of heavy rain has doubled in the past 45 years, coinciding with a global rise in temperatures, said Liu Shaw-chen of Taiwan's leading research institute Academia Sinica.
Given that they occupy a position on the scientific credibility spectrum that could charitably be characterised as ‘fringe’, it is no surprise that those who deny climate change have to take their victories where they find them.
Hence the glee following the BBC’s recent story ‘What happened to global warming?’
Some U.S. military veterans say climate change isn't just a threat to the environment, but national security. A busload of veterans on a crisscross tour of the nation are in the Natural State to bring attention to the problem. And the country's leaders are listening.
Retired U.S. General Wesley Clark said, "I know to most of us national security is about men and women in uniform, it's about a strong national defense." But Clark told folks at Monday's town hall meeting in Little Rock that it's also about protecting Americans from natural disasters. And he says global warming caused by over-use of fossil fuels poses a threat. "A series of changes of rainfall, snowfall, glaciation, moisture, sea level, which taken together are so enormous that they will displace millions of people," he said.
Abrupt and potentially deadly climate change can be delayed about 40 years without the need for enormously costly cuts in carbon dioxide emissions, according to a new study by a team including scientists at Scripps Institution of Oceanography.
Cutting back on non-CO2 contributors to climate change will push back the threshold for reaching a dangerous level of global warming, stated the study, published Monday in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Its authors include Mario Molina and Veerabhadran Ramanathan of the institution, part of UC San Diego.